Research page:Biblical archeology



See also

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External links

Biblical artifacts

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  • Amarna letters "The Amarna letters are an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the Egyptian capital of Akhetaten, founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, being mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia rather than ancient Egypt." - Wikipedia
  • Bubastis portal "Showing a series of inscriptions recounting pharaoh Shishaq's invasion of Judah and Israel in 925 BC, located outside the Temple of Amun at Karnak.(1 Kings 14:25; 2 Chronicles 12:1–12)." - Wikipedia
  • Code of Hammurabi "The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man." - Wikipedia
  • David's kingdom - two containers - "Two small containers, one of clay and one of stone, unearthed at Khirbet Qeiyafa near Beit Shemesh, are believed to be the first-ever archaeological evidence of Judean ritual dating from the time of David, about the 10th century B.C.E."[1]
  • Epic of Gilgamesh "The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia, is amongst the earliest surviving works of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five independent Sumerian poems about Gilgamesh, king of Uruk... The story centers on a friendship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh's equal to distract him from oppressing the people of Uruk... Various themes, plot elements, and characters in the Epic of Gilgamesh can also be found in the Bible, in particular in the stories of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (both stories involve a serpent) and the story of Noah and the Flood." - Wikipedia
  • Gezer calendar "(10th century BC) – calendar from the Biblical city of Gezer. It is one of the oldest known examples of Hebrew writing." - Wikipedia
  • Ipuwer Papyrus "The Ipuwer Papyrus is a single papyrus holding an ancient Egyptian poem, called The Admonitions of Ipuwer or The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All. The sole surviving manuscript dates to the later 13th century BCE (no earlier than the 19th dynasty in the New Kingdom). The Ipuwer Papyrus describes Egypt as afflicted by natural disasters and in a state of chaos, a topsy-turvy world where the poor have become rich, and the rich poor, and warfare, famine and death are everywhere. One symptom of this collapse of order is the lament that servants are leaving their servitude and acting rebelliously." - Wikipedia
  • Khirbet Qeiyafa pottery sherd "(10th century BC) early Hebrew inscription dates from the reign of King David and contains lines similar to Isaiah 1:17, Psalms 72:3, and Exodus 23:3. Was discovered in excavations near Israel's Elah valley." - Wikipedia
  • Large Stone Structure "Possible site of King David's palace (tentatively dated to 10th to 9th century BCE)." - Wikipedia
  • Merneptah Stele "The Merneptah Stele—also known as the Israel Stele or Victory Stele of Merneptah—is an inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC), which appears on the reverse side of a granite stele erected by the king Amenhotep III. It was discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes. The stele is notable for being the only Ancient Egyptian document generally accepted as mentioning "Isrir" or "Israel". It is the earliest known attestation of the demonym Israelite. It is therefore refereed to it as the "Israel stele"." - Wikipedia
  • Midianite pottery "Midianite pottery... is a ware type found in the Hejaz (northwestern Saudi Arabia), southern and central Jordan, southern Israel and the Sinai, generally dated to the 13th-12th centuries BCE, although later dates are also possible... The Biblical account states that Midian was where Moses spent the 40 years between the time that he fled Egypt after killing an Egyptian who had been beating a Hebrew, and his return to lead the Israelites." - Wikipedia
  • Shishaq Relief "The Shishaq Relief is a series of inscriptions recounting pharaoh Shishaq's invasion of Judah and Israel in 925 BC. It is located at the Bubastis Portal outside the Temple of Amun at Karnak... depicts Egypt's victory over King Rehoboam c. 925 BC, time of the plunder of Solomon's Temple in Judah." - Wikipedia
  • Stepped Stone Structure "The Stepped Stone Structure is the name given to the remains at a particular archaeological site (sometimes termed Area G) on the eastern side of the City of David, the oldest part of Jerusalem... (1000-900 BC) - has been suggested as being Jebusite, the Millo, or part of the Large Stone Structure, which has been suggested as being part of King David's palace." - Wikipedia
  • Tel Dan Stele "The Tel Dan Stele is a stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993/94 during excavations at Tel Dan in northern Israel. Its author was a king of Damascus, Hazael or one of his sons, and it contains an Aramaic inscription commemorating victories over local peoples including "Israel" and the "House of David."" - Wikipedia
  • Ugaritic alphabet "Clay tablets written in Ugaritic provide the earliest evidence of both the West and South Semitic orders of the alphabet, which gave rise to the alphabetic orders of the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin alphabets on the one hand, and of the Ge'ez alphabet on the other." - Wikipedia



  • Frank Moore Cross "Frank Moore Cross, Jr. (born July 13, 1921, Ross, California) is Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard University, notable for his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, his 1973 magnum opus Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, and his work in Northwest Semitic epigraphy." - Wikipedia
  • William F. Albright "William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 – September 19, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist and expert on ceramics. From the early twentieth century until his death, he was the dean of biblical archaeologists and the universally acknowledged founder of the Biblical archaeology movement." - Wikipedia


  • The Bible Unearthed 1. The Patriarchs First of a series. More information about the book behind this (critical) series in this Wikipedia article: "The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts is a 2001 book about the archaeology of Israel and its relationship to the origins of the Hebrew Bible. The authors are Israel Finkelstein, Professor of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University, and Neil Asher Silberman, a contributing editor to Archaeology Magazine."