Garden calendar

Higher topic: Gardening
Underlying topic(s):

Topic in Gardening courses

The data shown here are for a temperate climate in the northern hemisphere.

Meaning of colors & symbols in the tables

Meaning of colors and symbols
Color Meaning Symbol Meaning
Sowing Pre Pre-sowing in pots
Planting Gre Greenhouse, Cold frame
Harvesting GrM Green manure plant
Special treatments I, II etc. Months

Table Vegetables & Herbs

Also includes green manure plants and some flowers used as green manure plants.

Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Alfalfa Perennial plant. 2 kg / 800 m2. Best sown from half IV to half VI. Alfalfa or luzern grows slowly in the beginning but is a green manure plant. Harvest the seeds to use for sprouts.
Anise Annual plant
Asparagus Harvest in spring in the third and following years
Barley Summer barley in II-IV; winter barley in IX-XI. 1 kg / 100 m2
Basil Pre Pre Pre-sowing in IV & V; this plant is a perennial but doesn't survive frost
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) White beans & kidney beans sow from third week of V when there is no danger anymore for night frost, green beans from third week of V to first half of VII
Beetroot 21 Sow in VI for beetroot to conserve in a cellar.
Bell pepper Pre Pre Pre Pre-sow at min temp of 68F (20C). Bell peppers need long growth to form fruits, so for a good harvest, sow early in the year.
Black salsify Use fresh seeds only. Companion plants: Onions & Legumes.
Borage Borage can be used as a green manure plant
Brussels sprouts Sow from 1/2 III to IV. Pre-sow in pots or in cold frame.
Buckwheat Sow in third week of V
Capsicum (hot pepper) Pre Sow at min temperature of 68F (20C). See also Bell pepper
Capucijner pea
Caraway 75 g / 100 m2
Carrot S S-W S-W S-W S S = summer carrots; W = winter carrots. Companion plant Onion
Celery I presow all celery in pots.
Celery root Pre Pre Pre Celery root needs longer time to grow, therefor (pre-)sow early in pots or in a greenhouse.
Chard Keep the soil moist
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Chervil Sow the annual type each month from III/IX. Sow the perennial type from VII/IX, germinates after the winter.
Chicory Sow from half May. Harvest the roots in October. Wild chicory: 50 g / 300 m2
Chinese cabbage 10 15 Sow from June 10 to July 15 directly in the soil . Also needed is a min temp of 20 C during the day and 16 C during the night, to prevent the plants from making flowers.
Chives Perennial; likes half-shade
Clover 15 Sow in grassland or underneath grains. 3-5 kg / ha for grassland. Latest sowing date: Sept. 15.
Corn salad Pre Pre Pre I presow corn salad and plant out 10 x 20 cm. Because corn salad is hardy in winter, it is a good plant for fresh salads in winter and early spring.
Cucumber Sow from IV to 21st of VI. Depending on the species, grow in greenhouse, cold frame or outside.
Dill Companion plant of Fava bean
Eggplant Pre Seeds need temperature of min. 68F (20C) to germinate. Needs longer time before it forms fruits, therefore pre-sowing in the beginning of March.
Endive Pre Pre Companion plant of legumes. Pre-sowing or sowing under glass in III & IV for summer cultivation. Sowing outside in VI for harvest in the autumn, not earlier because endive doesn't like temperatures below 50F (10C) in its first month of growth.
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Fava bean Sow dill as companion plant in the row, to protect against greenfly. Cut out the edible tops of the fava bean plants to prevent against greenfly.
Fennel Gre gre Gre Harvest the bulb-like stem base. Also the leaves and fruits are edible. Sow on the spot. Until May 15, sow under glass in a (temporary) cold frame as fennel doesn't withstand frost.
Garden cress Data shown are for growing greens outside or in greenhouse. You can grow plants for seeds to sprout in your house all year through. Sow these plants for seeds earlier in the season.
Garlic Plant in XI underneath a layer of mulch.
Gherkin To stimulate the forming of fruits: Cut out the tops above the fourth leaf, cut off the tops of the side sprigs above the third leaf. Companion plant of maize.
Grass Lawn: 1 kg / 100 m2; pasture land (for example BG 11) 400 g / 100 m2. Grass needs a soil temperature above 52 F (11 C) to grow.
Hemp Gre Gre Gre In VI/VIII hemp can still be sown as a green manure plant.
Horseradish Harvest from late summer to next spring. Re-plant in IV.
Jerusalem artichoke Replant in IV
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Kale Sow until June 21
Leek Gre S Gre S Gre S S W W S = Summer leek. W = Winter leek.
Lemon balm Pre Pre Pre Perennial plant
Lettuce Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre I always pre-sow all my lettuce in pots, but you can also sow directly in the ground. There exist many species that differ from country to country. Some species are better for summer cultivation, others more fit for sowing in autumn and early spring.
Linseed GrM GrM GrM Traditional sowing is at the 100th day of the year. Can be sown later as green manure plant.
Lovage Pre Pre Perennial plant. I usually pre-sow lovage in pots. Lovage can winter outside or in the greenhouse.
Lupin GrM GrM GrM GrM GrM GrM Lupin is also useful as a green manure plant as its roots grow deep and the plant grows fast.
Melon Pre Pre Greenhouse plant for temperate climate. Pre-sow from half III to half IV.
Maize Sow in the last week of IV or the first two weeks of V. Companion plant of pumpkin & bean ('Three sisters').
Mentha Pre Pre Perennial plant
Mustard Grow mustard for the young greens, the seeds or as green manure plant. Sowing in VIII & IX for green manure only. 225 g / 100 m2.
Onion salad onion You can also grow salad onions in other months, but they may not grow so well.
Onion from bulbs Gre VII Gre Onions need a certain amount of hours of daylight to form bulbs. The young plants also don't grow well when it is too hot. Plant in spring until half IV for harvest of thick bulbs in summer, or in autumn for harvest next spring. For planting in the harvest you need a species that needs fewer hours of daylight to grow bulbs.
Onion from seeds Onions grown from seeds give more durable bulbs
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Parsley I always pre-sow parsley in pots. Later sown in the season, the plants survive winter in a greenhouse, or sometimes outside.
Parsnip 1/2 1/2
Pea Gre Gre Sow 1/2 III - 1/2 IV for harvest in the summer. You can also (pre-)sow them already in II. I sow peas in my greenhouse in X and XI for harvest in spring next year.
Phacelia GrM GrM GrM GrM GrM GrM GrM 15 Phacelia is a green manure plant and attracts bees.
Physalis peruviana Pre Pre Pre Needs a warm and sunny location. I grow them in a greenhouse.
Potato Planting early cultivars in the first half of IV, late cultivars in the second half of IV
Pumpkin Pre (Pre-)sow from 1/2 IV - V. Companion plant of beans and maize.
Purslane Gre Keep the soil moist.
Radish n n n Sow Raphanus sativus subsp. niger IV-VI (n)
Rapeseed 15 15 Green manure plant; 1 kg / 700 m2
Red cabbage Pre Pre
Rhubarb Planting 90 x 90 cm on a moist location in X-XII.
Ribes Pruning in first half of III before leaves are formed.
Rosemary Pre Pre
Rye S W W S = Summer rye. W = Winter rye. Rye can be used as a green manure plant, especially to cover the ground in the winter.
Sage Perennial
Satureja Pre Saturaja exists as annual and perennial. This is for the annual plant.
Sorrel Rumex 15 Sow from 1/2 III - VII
Snow pea Gre Gre Sow 1/2 III - 1/2 IV for harvest in the summer. You can also (pre-)sow them already in II. I sow snow peas in my greenhouse in X and XI for harvest in spring next year.
Soybean Pre Pre-sow in second half of IV. Harvest is only possible in warm summers for a temperate climate.
Spinach S Gre S Gre S S R R S S Gre S = Sharp seeds. R = Round seeds (for warmer seasons). Cultivation in autumn can be harvested the next year, provided not too much frost.
Strawberry Plant young plants in first 1/2 of VIII. Harvest the two following years from these plants, then replace them. I keep half of my plants one year old, the other half two years old.
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Sunflower GrM GrM Sow from 2nd half IV to VIII. VII & VIII only as green manure plant.
Tarragon Pre Pre Perennial plant
Thyme Pre Pre Pre Pre
Turnip There exist different species. A cultivar that is consumed raw, sow in IV, V & VIII, keep the soil moist. For the species that is harvested in autumn, sow in V & VI first half.
Turnip greens Gre
Tomato Pre Pre Pre Pre-sow end II to 1/2 IV
Watercress Pre Pre Sow in moist soil.
Wheat S W W S = Summer wheat. W = Winter wheat. 1 kg / 100 m2
White cabbage Pre Pre Pre Pre Pre Quick-growing cultivars for harvest in summer, sow 1/2 III-VI. For varieties harvested in autumn, sow II-IV. Pre-sow in pots or in cold frame.
Zucchini Sowing or pre-sowing in pots
Plant name I IV VII X Comments

Table Flowers

Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Alyssum Perennial rock plant
Calendula Pre Pre From 1/2 IV sow outside
Canterbury bells Biennial plant
Cornflower Sow until half VI; annual plant.
Dahlia Dig out the roots before it begins to freeze. Replant them at the beginning of the summer when there's no danger of frost anymore.
Delphinium Perennial
Dianthus barbatus Biennial
Digitalis Biennial plant
Gladiolus The tubers need to be harvested in X and kept free from frost; re-plant them in IV-V.
Gypsophila Likes lime. Annual plant, becomes only 6 weeks old. Rock plant.
Gypsyweed Perennial
Hollyhock Biennial
Lathyrus Annual plant
Lavender Pre Pre Sow at 68F (20C). If the seeds don't germinate after one month, lower the temperature to 32F (0C) for a few days and then sow again.
Plant name I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Comments
Margarite (Leucanthemum vulgare) Perennial plant.
Mullein Biennial
Nepeta Pre Perennial plant
Physalis Perennial plant
Poppy Pre Pre 15 II-V for annual cultivation; VII-VIII for biennial.
Sedum Perennial. Sow in seedbed and plant out later.
Tagetes Pre Pre
Tobacco Nicotiana Pre Pre Pre
Tropaeolum Flowers, leaves and fruits are edible.
Viola Gre Gre In III for annual cultivation; for biennial in VII & VIII and in IX in a cold frame.
Wallflower Annual or perennial.
Zinnia Pre Pre Annual plant
Plant name I IV VII X Comments

How to use the tables

  • Read the columns per month. Each colored cell means that there's a possible task for this plant in this month. You can make your 'to-do' list for that month.
  • Read the rows to find out details about one particular plant.


See also

External links